## table of contents

r.grow(1grass) | GRASS GIS User's Manual | r.grow(1grass) |

# NAME¶

**r.grow** - Generates a raster map layer with
contiguous areas grown by one cell.

# KEYWORDS¶

raster, distance, proximity

# SYNOPSIS¶

**r.grow**

**r.grow --help**

**r.grow** [-**m**] **input**=*name* **output**=*name*
[**radius**=*float*] [**metric**=*string*]
[**old**=*integer*] [**new**=*integer*] [--**overwrite**]
[--**help**] [--**verbose**] [--**quiet**] [--**ui**]

## Flags:¶

## Parameters:¶

**input**=*name***[required]**-

Name of input raster map **output**=*name***[required]**-

Name for output raster map **radius**=*float*-

Radius of buffer in raster cells

Default:*1.01* **metric**=*string*-

Metric

Options:*euclidean, maximum, manhattan*

Default:*euclidean* **old**=*integer*-

Value to write for input cells which are non-NULL (-1 => NULL) **new**=*integer*-

Value to write for "grown" cells

# DESCRIPTION¶

*r.grow* adds cells around the perimeters of all areas in a
user-specified raster map layer and stores the output in a new raster map
layer. The user can use it to grow by one or more than one cell (by varying
the size of the **radius** parameter), or like *r.buffer*, but with
the option of preserving the original cells (similar to combining
*r.buffer* and *r.patch*).

If **radius** is negative,*r.grow* shrinks areas by
removing cells around the perimeters of all areas.

# NOTES¶

The user has the option of specifying three different metrics
which control the geometry in which grown cells are created, (controlled by
the **metric** parameter): *Euclidean*, *Manhattan*, and
*Maximum*.

The *Euclidean distance* or *Euclidean metric* is the
"ordinary" distance between two points that one would measure with
a ruler, which can be proven by repeated application of the Pythagorean
theorem. The formula is given by:

d(dx,dy) = sqrt(dx^2 + dy^2)Cells grown using this metric would form isolines of distance that are circular from a given point, with the distance given by the

**radius**.

The *Manhattan metric*, or *Taxicab geometry*, is a form
of geometry in which the usual metric of Euclidean geometry is replaced by a
new metric in which the distance between two points is the sum of the
(absolute) differences of their coordinates. The name alludes to the grid
layout of most streets on the island of Manhattan, which causes the shortest
path a car could take between two points in the city to have length equal to
the points’ distance in taxicab geometry. The formula is given by:

d(dx,dy) = abs(dx) + abs(dy)where cells grown using this metric would form isolines of distance that are rhombus-shaped from a given point.

The *Maximum metric* is given by the formula

d(dx,dy) = max(abs(dx),abs(dy))where the isolines of distance from a point are squares.

If there are two cells which are equal candidates to grow into an
empty space, *r.grow* will choose the northernmost candidate; if there
are multiple candidates with the same northing, the westernmost is
chosen.

# EXAMPLE¶

In this example, the lakes map in the North Carolina sample
dataset location is buffered:

g.region raster=lakes -p # the lake raster map pixel resolution is 10m r.grow input=lakes output=lakes_grown_100m radius=10

Shrinking instead of growing:

g.region raster=lakes -p # the lake raster map pixel resolution is 10m r.grow input=lakes output=lakes_shrunk_100m radius=-10

# SEE ALSO¶

*r.buffer,* *r.grow.distance,* *r.patch*

*Wikipedia Entry: Euclidean Metric*

*Wikipedia Entry: Manhattan Metric*

# AUTHORS¶

Marjorie Larson, U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory

Glynn Clements

# SOURCE CODE¶

Available at: r.grow source code (history)

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GRASS 7.8.5 |